Foreword... 5
Summary... 7
List of respondents... 8
Introduction... 9

Part 1 – Organizations... 11

1.1. Establishment of sign language interpreter organizations... 12
1.2. National organizations...13
1.3. Names of the organizations...14
1.4. Countries without an independent national interpreter organization...14
1.5. Percentage of interpreters who are member of their national organization...14
1.6. Membership numbers... 16
1.7. Percentage female and male members... 18
1.8. Deaf interpreters as a member... 19
1.9 . Membership requirements... 20
1.10 Membership benefits...  20
1.11 Membership fees... 21
1.12 Non-interpreter membership... 24
1.13 Registry of interpreters... 25
1.14 Quality control... 29
1.15 Complaints procedure... 30

Part 2 – Education... 35

2.1 Educational Programs... 35
2.2 Countries and regions without a program... 38
2.3 Past & new programs... 39
2.4 Students enrolled in the interpreter training program... 44
2.5 Continuing education... 45
2.6 Curricula... 48
2.7 Interpreting for deafblind persons... 48
2.8 Minors offered in the educational program... 48

Part 3 – Employment... 49

3.1  Interpreters currently working... 50
3.2  Lack of interpreters... 52
3.3  Number of working interpreters: 2001 - 2016... 54
3.4  Deaf sign language users... 55
3.5  Deaf sign language users per interpreter... 60
3.6  The right to an interpreter... 62
3.7  Requesting interpreting services... 66
3.8  Interpreters: forms of employment... 70
3.9  Responsible party for the payment of interpreting services... 72
3.10 Recognition of sign language... 78
3.11 Sign language recognition & funding of interpreting services... 79
3.12 Interpreting fees... 81
3.13 Reasonable pay?... 88
3.14 Increase of fees with experience ...89
3.15 Budget limitations... 90
3.16 Employed interpreters...  91
3.17 Development of the profession   92

Appendices... 95

Appendix 1 – Organizations of sign language interpreter in Europe... 96
Appendix 2 – Registry of interpreters... 99
Appendix 3 – Quality assurance system... 100
Appendix 4 – Right to an interpreter... 102
Appendix 5 – Employment... 106
Appendix 6 – Survey sign language interpreting in Europe... 111
Appendix 7 – Overview of facts by country... 116
Appendix 8 – Overview of all figures... 127

References... 129
Index... 130